Gönderen Konu: 57. Piyade Alayı (57th Infantry Regiment)  (Okunma sayısı 6760 defa)

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57. Piyade Alayı (57th Infantry Regiment)
« : Nisan 25, 2014, 12:00:19 ÖÖ »

'It so happened that on the morning of the 25th of April, the 57th Regiment, 19th Division, was scheduled for a field exercise in the vicinity of Hill 971. On reading the report of the landing, Mustafa Kemal turned to his chief of staff and asked, "Have the men ammunition?" On an affirmative reply, he ordered the regiment reinforced by one mountain battery to move at once and, map in hand, personally led it along a route to place it between the advancing British on Battleship Hill and the crest. At 9:30 a.m., this force made contact with the enemy and attacked at once. Kemal personally issued the order at the distance of 500 yards from the enemy which, according to the French account, ran in part as follows; "I do not order you to attack, but to die. If you have no more cartridges, you have your bayonets."

04:30 a.m.; 1,500 British opposed to 700 Turks.
05:30 a.m.; 4,000 British opposed to 700 Turks.
10:00 a.m.; 8,000 British opposed to 4,200 Turks.
02:00 p.m.; 12,000 British with two mountain batteries opposed to 6,300 Turks with 14 guns.
04:00 p.m.; 16,000 British opposed to 8,400 Turks.
At dark; 22,000 British opposed to 8,400 Turks.

The power of a force is not measured by its number. Witness the attack of fifteen Turks against the Australian brigade.'


Kaynak:
General Patton'ın Yb. rütbesindeyken yaptığı araştırmasından.
http://www.pattonhq.com/pdffiles/gallipoli.pdf (Sayfa 17-18)


Ben size taarruzu emretmiyorum, ölmeyi emrediyorum. Biz ölünceye kadar geçecek zaman zarfında yerimize başka kuvvetler gelir, başka komutanlar kaim olabilir.
19.Tümen K.Yb.Mustafa Kemal (25 Nisan 1915, Conkbayırı)

Onlar mukaddes vatan toprakları için canlarını seve seve vermişler, Çanakkale Savaşları’nın kaderini değiştirmişlerdir. Burada geçen her saniye, kullanılan her an, ölen her nefer, Türk vatan ve milletinin mukadderatını çizmiştir. Kara savaşlarına katılan ilk birlik olan 57. Alay, vatan sevgisinin ne olduğunu insanlığa göstermiştir. Bu kahraman Alayı hayranlık, minnet ve rahmetle anıyorum.” - Mareşal Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

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« Son Düzenleme: Nisan 23, 2018, 10:32:03 ÖS Gönderen: Honore »

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Ynt: 57. Piyade Alayı (57th Infantry Regiment)
« Yanıtla #2 : Nisan 25, 2016, 10:09:26 ÖÖ »

'57 nci Piyade Alayı savaşın ilk on günü içinde neredeyse mevcudunun üçte ikisini şehit vermiştir. Buna rağmen asla savaş gücünden hiçbir şey kaybetmemiş, cesaretini yitirmemiş ve korkuya kapılmamıştır. Bu alayda çarpışan askerlerin insan üstü yiğitlik ve kudretlerine karşılık Sultan Mehmet Reşat tarafından 30 Aralık 1915 tarihinde Alay Sancağına Altın ve Gümüş İmtiyaz Madalyası ile Harp Madalyası takılmak üzere verilmiştir.

Ayrıca alay sancağına şu hatıranın yazılmasını emretmiştir. "Devlet-i Osmaniye ile İtilaf Devletleri Harbinde 57 nci Piyade Alayının düşman tarafından 25 Nisan 1915 günü Çanakkale' de Arıburnu'na meydana gelen ilk çıkartmada karaya çıkmış düşman kuvvetlerinin ilerlemesine ve Kocaçimen Tepelerinin düşman eline geçmesine o günkü hızlı davranışı ve şiddetli hücumu ile engel olmuş ve aylarca düşman karşısında savaş hattında kalarak ona karşı kahramanca muharebeler gerçekleştirmek suretiyle gösterdiği fevkalade yiğitlik ve yararlığın hatırasıdır". '

http://www.e-yasamrehberi.com/photo/gelibolu/tarihi_yarimada/57_nci_piyade_alayi.htm
« Son Düzenleme: Nisan 25, 2016, 10:12:19 ÖÖ Gönderen: Honore »

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Ynt: 57. Piyade Alayı (57th Infantry Regiment)
« Yanıtla #3 : Nisan 25, 2017, 09:22:56 ÖÖ »

http://i63.tinypic.com/9k43v9.jpg
Mustafa Kemal, leading his 19th Division, was one of those rare men whom providence places at exactly the right place at exactly the right time. On the morning of the Allied landings, Kemal’s division was held in reserve approximately five miles away from the shores. Its sister division, the 9th, bore the brunt of Allied assault, and its commander urgently requested reinforcements. Kemal personally took charge of one of his regiments, a company of cavalry and an artillery battery, and hurried forward. As he later described in his memoirs, Kemal stopped on a crest of a hill to wait for his troops to catch up. While he sat resting his horse, he spotted a group of retreating Turkish soldiers from the 9th Division. They informed him that they were out of ammunition and were being closely followed by the British. Kemal quickly saw a skirmish line of British soldiers climbing up the hill. He ordered the few 9th Division soldiers to fix bayonets and lie down. He later wrote, “As they did so, the enemy too lay down. We had won time.”

The Turkish Counterattack

In the late morning, as more and more units from his 19th Division began arriving opposite the landing sites, Kemal organized a counterattack against the ANZAC positions. Leading toward the 57th Infantry Regiment, the 36-year-old officer addressed his men. “I don’t order you to attack,” he said. “I order you to die. By the time we are dead, other units and commanders will have come up to take our place.” While containing more that a little dramatic flair, Kemal’s orders reflected his correct estimation of the situation: hold at all costs.

During April 25 and the next few days, the 57th Regiment lived up to its commander’s expectation—casualties were so heavy that the regiment practically ceased to exist. To recognize the sacrifice of men of the 57th Infantry Regiment, the Turkish government did not reconstitute the unit, retiring its number with honors.
http://warfarehistorynetwork.com/daily/military-history/i-order-you-to-die/
« Son Düzenleme: Nisan 23, 2018, 10:27:25 ÖS Gönderen: Honore »

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Ynt: 57. Piyade Alayı (57th Infantry Regiment)
« Yanıtla #4 : Nisan 25, 2018, 12:01:25 ÖÖ »

"Taarruzun, özellikle vasıtalarının şiddetli olması yönüyle kesin sonucun daha çabuk bir şekilde alınmasına uygun ve amacın doğrudan doğruya düşmanın yok edilmesine yönelik bir muharebe şekli olduğunu da belirtmek önemlidir. Taarruz, piyadelerimizin doğuştan kabiliyetleriyle uyumlu olduğu gibi bu hareket şekli için onlarda var olan özel yetenekleri her zaman devam ettirmek görevimizdir... Bütün taarruz muharebelerinde her şeyden önce, piyade sınıfı, özünde bulunan taarruz ruhunu daima geliştirmeIidir. Her ne pahasına olursa olsun düşmanın üzerine atılmak fikri bütün tutum ve davranışlarına egemen olmalıdır... Piyademizin, fazilet ve askerî kıymeti hakkında esasen var olan yüksek bir fikri muhafaza etmesi gerekir; kendine olan güveni bozulmadan sürekli olarak korunmalıdır... Belirli bir çerçevede olmak üzere her komutanın inisiyatifini kullanması, muharebenin kazanılmasında temel ilkelerdendir. Eğitimlerimizin asıl amacı, bu temel ilkenin uygulamasını subaylarımıza öğretmek olmalıdır.”
Kur. Ön Yzb. Mustafa Kemal

"Bölüğün Muharebe Eğitimi" s. 28, 49, 50, 51
http://www.ata.tsk.tr/content/media/01/bolugunmuharebeegitimi.pdf
(s.38, 59, 60, 61)
(Prusya Harp Akademisi eski müdürlerinden General Karl Ludwig Wilhelm Hermann Litzmann'ın "Bölük Muharebe Eğitimi" isimli eserinden etüd ve milli örneklerle çeviri Kur. Ön Yzb. Mustafa Kemal, yeni Türkçeye adaptasyon Prof.Dr. Ayşe Afet İnan)


Around 0510, the sound of naval gunfire woke Lieutenant Colonel Mustafa Kemal, commander of the 19th Infantry Division. Shortly afterwards, the 9th Division commander informed Kemal of fighting at Ari Burnu and of the 27th Infantry Regiment's move into that sector. Kemal, at age thirty-four, was already one of the most promising young officers in the Ottoman Army, Fate now placed him in the key sector of the opening phase in the Gallipoli campaign.

Two hours passed without any word, and Kemal grew anxious, sensing grave danger in the air. Yet a major dilemma faced him. The 19th Infantry Division constituted Fifth Army’s general reserve, under the dual command of Liman van Sanders and Esat Pasha, commander of the III Corps and responsible for the defense of the Callipoli Peninsula. Now, despite the distant gunfire, Kemal had no instructions from his bosses. Prewar plans called for Kemal to reinforce the positions at Anatolia, the Gulf of Saros, or Gallipoli depending on the location of the Allied landings. In line with these three possible missions, the 19th Infantry Division moved to Boghali, from where it could move north or south on land or embark on ships for Anatolia. The division comprised 231 officers and 12,777 men organized in three infantry regiments and one artillery regiment.

After two hours, Kemal followed his instinct and decided to act without gaining approval from his superiors. He grasped that if the Allies were conducting a major landing, they could easily isolate the battle in the south for control of Cape Hellas.

At 0730, Kemal wired corps headquarters expressing concern that he had had no reports of the types and number of enemy troops in the Ari Burnu area. He informed Esat Pasha that he was embarking with his cavalry company, the 57th Infantry Regiment (his best unit), and a mountain battery to investigate the situation personally. The chief of staff would remain in charge of the division.

At 0800, Kemal set out for Conk Bayiri (northwest of Ari Burnu within the Sair Bair Ridge). Though lacking tactical intelligence about the enemy, Kemal clearly understood the importance of this crest tine for defense of the entire area. As noted in the book "Infantry in Battle", "If [the enemy’s] dispositions are obscure and the situation vague, we can still solve the problem; for by attacking the terrain, we can effectively attack the enemy." Kemal wisely focused his actions on decisive points.

At 1000, while atop Conk Bayiri, Kemal encountered Turkish soldiers in flight who informed him that they had run out of ammunition to stop the advancing enemy. Kemal, resolutely committed to preventing the enemy from slicing the peninsula in half, dismissed their trepidation: “There is no flight from the enemy. There is [only] fighting with the enemy. If you have no ammunition, you have your bayonets.” He then ordered the men to lie down in the hope of making the pursuing Allies believe they faced an ambush.

The ruse bought valuable moments, allowing for the fortuitous arrival of advance elements of the 57th Infantry Regiment.

At 1030, Kemal sent a second message to corps headquarters, this time informing the commander that he was engaging the enemy. Coordinating with the 27th Infantry Regiment, Kemal organized the 57th Infantry Regiment to attack with two battalions forward and the third held in reserve. To impress upon his men the criticality of controlling the hilltops at all cost, Kemal issued his famous order:

“I am not ordering you to attack. I am ordering you to die. In the time that it takes us to die, other forces and commanders can come and take our place.”

... Allied forces were scattered in the rugged terrain. Combat became confused and bitter, often hand-to-hand, but the Ottoman attacks proved successful, pushing the surprised Allies back toward their bridgehead area. In the process, however, both Turkish regiments suffered heavy casualties.

By the end of the day, the 57th was virtually wiped out, and to this day, in honor of the unit’s heroism, no Turkish regiment since has been allowed to wear its number. 

"Studies in Battle Command", [p. 76 - 77, (88 - 89) ] Faculty of Combat Studies Institute, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth Kansas
http://www.armyupress.army.mil/Portals/7/combat-studies-institute/csi-books/battles.pdf
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